So if there are two children in college.
Daughter's education expenses are $40k & paid by distribution of $50k from the 529 owned by Grandma, so the 1099-Q is issued to Grandma FBO Daughter.
Son's education expenses are $30k & paid by distribution of $35k from Coverdell owned by Father, so the 1099-Q is issued to Father FBO Son.
When school is not in session, Daughter & Son live with Father.
Who pays tax & penalty on excess distributions? I would think it's whom 1099-Q is issued to (Grandma & Father), or is it the beneficiary?
Thank you for your advice,